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Land Use Planning Topics: Environmental Issues-Climate Change (scholarly references)

Land Use Planning Topics

Environmental Issues: Climate Change

References that have links are freely available on the internet.

Black, R.A., Bruce, J.P., & Egener, I.D.M. (2010). Adapting to Climate Change: A Risk-Based Guide for Local Governments in British Columbia: Volume 1: The Guide

Using the Canadian national standard framework for risk management, this guide is intended to assist local and regional governments (as well as health officials, emergency managers and businesses) in understanding the risks related to climate change and how to manage predicted impacts. The guide provides an overview of climate trends and projections in BC and the local government-planning context. The document focuses primarily on the steps in the risk management process. Briefly summarized, the steps are: getting started; preliminary analysis; risk estimation; risk evaluation; risk controls and adaptation decisions; and implementing and monitoring. The guide stresses the importance of communication and documentation throughout all steps.


Carlson, D. (2012). Preparing for climate change: An implementation guide for local governments in British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: West Coast Environmental Law.

Preparing for Climate Change: An Implementation Guide for Local Governments in BC is designed to assist local government elected officials and staff, including planners, engineers, chief administrative officers, financial officers and others, to plan and act in ways that will make their communities more resilient to the impacts of climate change.


Conrad, C. T., & Daoust, T. (2008). Community-based monitoring frameworks: Increasing the effectiveness of environmental stewardship. Environmental management41(3), 358-366.

This article presents an adaptable community-based monitoring (CBM) framework. The investigators used a well-tested conceptual CBM framework developed by the Canadian Community Monitoring Network (CCMN) as a basis from which to work.


Conrad, C. C., & Hilchey, K. G. (2011). A review of citizen science and community-based environmental monitoring: issues and opportunities. Environmental monitoring and assessment176(1-4), 273-291.

Worldwide, decision-makers and nongovernment organizations are increasing their use of citizen volunteers to enhance their ability to monitor and manage natural resources, track species at risk, and conserve protected areas. We reviewed the last 10 years of relevant citizen science literature for areas of consensus, divergence, and knowledge gaps.


Dinshaw, A., Fisher, S., McGray, H., Rai, N., & Schaar, J. (2014). Monitoring and evaluation of climate change adaptation: Methodological approaches. OECD Environment Working Papers, No. 74, OECD Publishing, Paris.

This paper explores methodological approaches that can be used to monitor and evaluate climate change adaptation initiatives at the projects and programme levels. It examines approaches that have been used in other areas of development practice to see what lessons have been learned that can inform the development of monitoring and evaluation frameworks targeted at adaptation. 


Fang, S., Da Xu, L., Zhu, Y., Ahati, J., Pei, H., Yan, J., & Liu, Z. (2014). An integrated system for regional environmental monitoring and management based on internet of thingsIEEE Trans. Industrial Informatics10(2), 1596-1605.

This paper introduces a novel IIS that combines Internet of Things (IoT), Cloud Computing, Geoinformatics [remote sensing (RS), geographical information system (GIS), and global positioning system (GPS)], and e-Science for environmental monitoring and management, with a case study on regional climate change and its ecological effects.


Fraser, J. & Strand, M. (2011). Climate change adaptation for local government: A resource guide. Victoria, BC: Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions.

This document was produced for participants in the forum Resilient Communities: Preparing for the Climate Challenge, June 14-15, 2011 in Vancouver. It updates and adds to resources identified on the ReTooling for Climate Change website, funded by Natural Resources Canada and produced by the Fraser Basin Council. The BC Ministry of Environment, Climate Action Secretariat, provided guidance and expertise. The report was coauthored by Jenny Fraser, BC Ministry of Environment, and Matt Strand, who was supported through a Pacific Institute for Climate Solutions grant to Simon Fraser University’s Adapting to Climate Change Team (ACT).


Fürst, C., Opdam, P., Inostroza, L., & Luque, S. (2014). Evaluating the role of ecosystem services in participatory land use planning: proposing a balanced score card. Landscape ecology29(8), 1435-1446.

The objective of this paper is to suggest a standardized scheme and generalizable criteria to assess how successful the application of the ES concept contributed to facilitate participatory planning.


Hersperger, A. M., Ioja, C., Steiner, F., & Tudor, C. A. (2015). Comprehensive consideration of conflicts in the land-use planning process: a conceptual contributionCarpathian Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences10(4), 5-13.

An aspiration of land-use planning is to coordinate current and future societal needs while minimizing conflicts. Recently, planning has focused mainly on conflict negotiation, focusing for example on communication and community engagement. However, an understanding of an area’s possibilities for land-use conflicts has the potential to support sound allocation of social and financial resources to prevent or reduce disagreements. We propose a conceptual contribution for the comprehensive consideration of conflicts in land-use planning process, focusing on anticipation and negotiation.


Keith, L. (2017). Environmental sampling and analysis: a practical guide. Routledge.


McDonald, T. L. (2003). Review of environmental monitoring methods: Survey designsEnvironmental monitoring and assessment85(3), 277-292.

During the past decade and a half, environmental monitoring programs have increased in number and importance. Large scale environmental monitoring programs often present design difficulties because they tend to measure many (sometimes hundreds) of parameters through space and time. This paper reviewed and summarized one important component of environmental monitoring programs, the statistical survey design


Mercer-Clarke, C.S.L. & Clarke, A.J. (2018). Adaptation Primers. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Society of Landscape Architects and University of Waterloo.

Primer One summarizes current science on climate change, and what it means for Canada. 

Primer Two focuses on framing policy and planning approaches to mitigation and adaptation with special emphasis on building resilience, designing for positive transformation, and ensuring sustainability in ecosystems and societies. 

Primer Three provides an overview of the opportunities to create resilient communities that enhance public well-being, integrate nature, and ensure a prosperous future. 

Primer Four focuses on the options for response to rising waters, ranging from persisting in place to migration to better circumstances.   


Whitelaw, G., Vaughan, H., Craig, B., & Atkinson, D. (2003). Establishing the Canadian community monitoring network. Environmental monitoring and assessment88(1-3), 409-418.

Community-based ecosystem monitoring activities in Canada are increasing in response to a number of factors including: (i) the needs of decision-makers for timely information on local environmental changes; (ii) limited use of government monitoring data and information by decision makers: (iii) government cuts to monitoring programs; (iv) the increasingly recognized need to include stakeholders in planning and management processes; and (v) the desire of citizens to contribute to environmental protection.