Land Use Planning Topics
Planning: Models and Guidelines
References that have links are freely available on the internet.
Amler, B., Betke, D., Eger, H., Ehrich, C., Kohler, A., Kutter, A., … Zimmermann, W. (1999). Land use planning: Methods, strategies and tools. Eschborn, Germany: Universum Verlagsanstalt.
These guidelines to LUP in the development co-operation are the result of an intensive discussion process with competent partners in the Federal Ministry of Development Co-operation (BMZ), with the German Development Bank (KfW) and with colleagues in the planning and development department of GTZ. Valuable scientific and practical experience and contributions have been incorporated in these guidelines. Despite it specifies a technical standpoint the reader is enabled to form his or her own opinion. It describes the connection between LUP and other spatial and sectoral planning operations, it defines those participating in the planning process, it gives suggestions on how to carry out these processes in various types of projects and it demonstrates how the topic is incorporated in the macro-economic and social structures.
Bayer, E., Blaesing, B., Bobrin, J., Carlisle, D., Cassin, S.N., Crain, E., … Winnie, O.E. (2003). Land Use Tools and Techniques: A Handbook for Local Communities. Southeast Michigan Council of Governments.
Land Use Tools and Techniques provides current techniques for addressing local land use decisions with the goal of positively impacting local communities and the Southeast Michigan region, and ultimately, in a healthy quality of life of all residents. The handbook is divided into four main sections – Land Development, Community Design, Environmental Protection, and Transportation. Each section is further divided into several specific chapters. Each chapter contains “Keeping it Connected,” noting how issues are interrelated; Planning and Regulatory Considerations; Tools for Implementation, Case Example(s), and Additional Resources. The handbook also includes basic terminology on planning and development, a glossary, bibliography, index, and other available SEMCOG services to assist local member communities. Land Use Tools and Techniques is an updated version of the handbook published by SEMCOG in 1994. Preparation of this document was financed, in part, through grants from the U.S.
Department of Transportation, Federal Transit Administration and Federal Highway Administration, through the Michigan Department of Transportation and local membership dues.
Chandler, M. (2000). Ten Steps in Preparing a Comprehensive Plan. Planning Commissioners Journal, 39, 9-11.
Capturing in words and pictures what a community hopes to become is a daunting challenge. The task is made simpler, however, when the planning commission chooses to systematically organize the process. While there is no universally accepted “one best way” to develop a plan, this column will describe one “typical” sequence of steps that can be followed in developing a comprehensive plan
Ecotrust Canada (2009). BC First Nations land use planning: Effective practices.
The following guide outlines a land-use planning process that can be modified and tailored to meet the unique planning needs of your community. It also highlights effective practices that have lead First Nations in BC to successful land use planning in their communities.
This guide is not intended to be a prescription of “how-to’s,” nor is it an exhaustive survey of the topic. Instead, it attempts to be a practical synthesis of approaches and lessons learned over the last decade by BC First Nations, and those areas of planning deserving more attention and experience.
Land use planning can be mystifying. It is hoped the following framework increases clarity and highlights some of the key effective practices in land use planning.
McNeill, D., Bursztyn, M., Novira, N., Purushothaman, S., Verburg, R., & Rodrigues-Filho, S. (2014). Taking account of governance: The challenge for land-use planning models. Land Use Policy, 37, 6-13.
The need to protect the environment from the wanton ecological destruction of unfettered economic growth and conspicuous consumption is unquestionable. What is still in question, however, is how environmental assessment methods can be used as a means to evaluate the sustainability of urban development. For while the number of environmental assessment methods available to evaluate the sustainability of urban development has increased notably over the past decade, questions still remain as to the integrative and multi-scalar nature of their evaluations. At their most basic these controversies boil down to the question: is the logic of building assessment integrative and can the method(ology) it uses be scaled-up so as to ‘up-the-ante’ and offer city-wide evaluations of sustainable urban development? This paper reports on the work the BEQUEST network has undertaken to develop such an integrative and multi-scalar assessment methodology and sets out the types of assessment methods it is possible to use in ‘upping-the-ante’ and providing such city-wide evaluations.
Shen, Q., Chen, Q., Tang, B. S., Yeung, S., Hu, Y., & Cheung, G. (2009). A system dynamics model for the sustainable land use planning and development. Habitat International, 33(1), 15-25.
Thirteen years ago, the first edition of Land-Use Planning for Sustainable Development examined the question: is the environmental doomsday scenario inevitable? It then presented the underlying concepts of sustainable land-use planning and an array of alternatives for modifying conventional planning for and regulation of the development of land. This second edition captures current success stories, showcasing creative, resilient strategies for fundamentally changing the way we alter our landscape.
Taylor, G.D. (2015). The Purpose of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan. Extension.org.
The comprehensive plan, also known as a general plan, master plan or land-use plan, is a document designed to guide the future actions of a community. It presents a vision for the future, with long-range goals and objectives for all activities that affect the local government. This includes guidance on how to make decisions on public and private land development proposals, the expenditure of public funds, availability of tax policy (tax incentives), cooperative efforts and issues of pressing concern, such as farmland preservation or the rehabilitation of older neighborhoods areas. Most plans are written to provide direction for future activities over a 10- to 20-year period after plan adoption. However, plans should receive a considered review and possible update every five years.
Thomas, D. (2001). The Importance of Development Plans/Land Use Policy for Development Control. USAID/OAS Post-Georges Disaster Mitigation Project, Workshop for Building Inspectors, January 15 - 26, 2001.
The topic I have been asked to address today is "The Importance of Development Plans for Development Control." It is therefore my task to put into context why development plans are important in the context of the development control function with which most of you are involved.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2017). Green infrastructure modeling toolkit.
EPA has developed innovative models, tools, and technologies for communities to manage urban water runoff. The models and tools in this toolkit incorporate green infrastructure practices to help communities manage their water resources in a more sustainable way, increasing resilience to future changes, such as climate and extreme events.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2017). Managing and Transforming Waste Streams: A Tool for Communities
Explore 100 policies and programs communities can implement to reduce the amount of waste disposed in landfills and promote waste prevention and materials reuse across waste generation sectors. Access city and county ordinance, contract, and franchise agreement language and program websites.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2017). National stormwater calculator and user's guide
EPA’s National Stormwater Calculator (SWC) is a software application that estimates the annual amount of rainwater and frequency of runoff from a specific site. Estimates are based on local soil conditions, land cover, and historic rainfall records. It is designed to be used by anyone interested in reducing runoff from a property, including site developers, landscape architects, urban planners, and homeowners.
United States Environmental Protection Agency (2017). Policy and Program Impact Estimator: A Materials Recovery Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Calculator for Communities
EPA developed a calculator that expands the Waste Reduction Model (WARM) framework to include a community's existing waste stream and policy and program options. This Excel spreadsheet calculator is designed to help municipalities, counties, and tribes estimate reductions in life cycle GHGs from implementing new or expanded solid waste policies and programs in their communities.
Wehrmann, B. (2012). Land use planning: Concept, tools and applications. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH
Land is a scarce resource increasingly affected by the competition of mutually exclusive uses. Fertile land in rural areas becomes scarcer due to population growth, pollution, erosion and desertification, effects of climate change, urbanization etc. On the remaining land, local, national and international users with different socioeconomic status and power compete to achieve food security, economic growth, energy supply, nature conservation and other objectives. Land use planning can help to find a balance among these competing and sometimes contradictory uses.
Young, A. (1993). Guidelines for land-use planning (Vol. 1). Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Soil Resources, Conservation Service, & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Interdepartmental Working Group on Land Use Planning.
Land-use planning is sometimes misunderstood as being a process where planners tell people what to do. In this publication, land-use planning means the systematic assessment of physical, social and economic factors in such a way as to encourage and assist land users in selecting options that increase their productivity, are sustainable and meet the needs of society.